KPK Textbook Board Chemistry Book For class 12th

Grade 12th Chemistry is usually divided into three parts, the first part is Inorganic, the second one is Organic Chemistry which is the largest portion in second-year chemistry for class 12th. The third one is general chemistry. Most of the students face the organic chemistry hardest part of the 2nd year chemistry. But some consider inorganic chemistry the most difficult portion in the class 12th chemistry textbook.

There are different characteristics of organic compounds. Carbon has the property of self linkage. It can link with thousands of other carbon atoms to form long C-C chains or rings structures. So this self-linkage of carbon atoms forms chains and ring compounds. This property of self-linkage of carbon is called catenation. Carbon can also form stable single and multiple bonds with each other and other atoms like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, halogens, Sulphur, etc. 

When two or more organic compounds have the same molecular formula but they are different in structures, these are called isomers and this phenomenon is called isomerism. The majority of the organic compounds mainly involve covalent bonds between C-C and C-H, therefore, they are generally non-polar and have non-ionic characters. 

Solubility depends upon the forces of attraction between the solute and solvent molecules. When these forces are stronger than the intermolecular forces of solute-solute- and solvent-solvent, then solute dissolves easily. But the organic compounds are formed by covalent bonds i.e. non-ionic and almost non-polar, so most of the organic compounds are insoluble in water, while some are partially soluble but they are readily soluble in non-polar solvents like ether, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, etc.

At the last, you will get the direct download link for the Chemistry textbook for class 12th of the Kpk board. Life is a practical version of chemistry, especially organic chemistry. No field of science is so closely related to our daily life as is organic chemistry. The importance of organic compounds and products can hardly be overemphasized. Most of the things that we come across in our daily life are organic substances like the food that we eat and the clothes we wear all are organic compounds.

File Type: Pdf

File Size:   164 MB

File Pages: 467


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