KPK Textbook Board Biology book 2021Class 11th

After completing this chapter students will be able to understand Different techniques used in cell biology like staining, centrifugation,  tissue culture,  chromatography,  electrophoresis,   spectrophotometry,  and micrometry. 

Tissue culture is the growth of tissues and cells separate from the organized and typically facilitated by the use of a liquid semi-solid growth medium.  With the help of tissue culture, we can produce clones in which all the product cells have the same genotypes.  tissue culture requires some important apparatus.

  • cell culture hood
  • Incubator 
  • water bath.
  • centrifuge
  • refrigerator in freezer
  • cell counter
  • inverted microscope
  • liquid nitrogen
  • sterilizer 

Another important technique in cell biology is cell chromatography.  Chromatography is a means of iterating one type of molecule from another. it involves moving the mixture normally in the liquid or is a gas over a stationary phase. The Separation may depend on our range of chemical and physical properties of the molecules such as solubility and Molecular mass.

The cell wall was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. Cell walls have three fundamental parts middle lamella, primary wall, and secondary wall. 

The plasma membrane is a dynamic structure only about 7nm wide but it presents a barrier to the movement of ions and molecules particularly polar that are water-soluble and amino acids which are detected by the nonpolar. 

The cell theory describes that all living organisms are composed of one or more cells in the cells are arise from preexisting cells and the cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organism

The cell may be prokaryotic or Eukaryotic in origin. The prokaryotic cell lacks most of the membrane-bound organelles The nuclear region in the prokaryotic cell is called a nucleoid

All cells are bounded by the plasma membrane. Cell walls are the additional covering in plant cells outside the plasma membrane. Cell walls in plant give shape, protection, and support to the cell endoplasmic reticulum helps in the transport of materials between the cytoplasm and nucleus is also involved in the protein synthesis

Golgi apparatus is mainly concerned with the storage of the secretory products and are made up of vesicles arranged approximately parallel to each other and are bounded by a single membrane. Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelle is and  called the powerhouse of the cell 

Biological molecules are the second chapter of the textbook KPK board class 11th pre-medical. After completing the second chapter of Biology the students will be able to understand and explain the biological molecule rules and the Protoplasm of the cell and they can also explain the importance of water carbohydrates and their roles in the classification of carbohydrate structure and function of proteins and role of lipids and structure and classification of nucleic acid

There are four types of fundamental biological molecules present in the protoplasm. These are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. These molecules are distinguished from one another on the basis of their chemical structure composition and function. Protein is the most abundant organic compound in the Protoplasm.

Proteins are macromolecules form of small units called amino acids. DNA and RNA  also protein in nature. Proteins play a most important role in the structure in the function of the cell next to Protein in an abundance in Protoplasm is are carbohydrate also called hydrated carbon. They are composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen carbohydrate are mostly carbon-containing compounds in cells.

They are also used in respiration for energy but also a building material of plant cells.  Lipids are a separate diverse group of organic compounds in the Protoplasm of the cell. Among other functions which they play in living cells is storage.  The building material for cellular organelle is nucleic acids that are deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and a nucleic acid or any is another important type of fundamental organic molecules of the cell performing a specific function that is DNA stores genetic information and transfers the genetic information to the next generation.

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